Saturday, September 19, 2009

Web Building Introduction



Every Web developer has to know the building blocks of the Web:

  • HTML 4.01
  • CSS
  • XML and XSLT
  • JavaScript
  • ASP or PHP
  • Managing data with SQL
  • The future of the Web


HTML 4.01

HTML is the language of the Web, and every Web developer should have a basic understanding of it.

HTML 4.01 is an important Web standard, and very different from HTML 3.2.

When tags, like <font> and color attributes, were added to HTML 3.2, it started a developer's nightmare. Development of web sites where font information must be added to every single Web page is a long and expensive job.

With HTML 4.01, all formatting can be moved out of the HTML document, and into a separate style sheet.

HTML 4.01 is also important because XHTML 1.0 is HTML 4.01 "reformulated" as an XML application. Using HTML 4.01 in your pages makes the future upgrade from HTML to XHTML a very simple process.

Make sure you use the latest HTML 4.01 standard.


CSS - Cascading Style Sheets

Styles define how HTML elements should be displayed, just like the <font> tag in HTML 3.2.

Style sheets are normally saved in external files. External style sheets enable you to change the appearance and layout of EVERY page in your Web site, just by editing a single document. If you have ever tried changing something like the font or color of all the headings in all your HTML pages, you will understand how CSS can save a lot of work!



XHTML stands for Extensible HyperText Markup Language.

XHTML is a reformulation of HTML 4.01 in XML, and is supported in all major browsers.

To prepare for the future: Read how was converted to XHTML


XML - A Tool for Describing Data

XML is NOT a replacement for HTML. XML describes data, while HTML displays the data.

XML is as a cross-platform, software-, and hardware-independent tool for storing and transmitting information.

We believe that XML is as important to the Web as HTML was to the foundation of the Web, and that XML will be the most common tool for all data manipulation and data transmission.


XSLT - A Tool for Transforming Data

XSLT is used to transform XML documents into other formats, like HTML, WML, etc.

XSLT can transform an XML file into a format that is recognized by a browser.

XSLT can also add HTML elements, rearrange and sort data, make decisions about which data to display, and more.


JavaScript - Client-Side Scripting

Client-side scripting is about "programming" the behaviour of a browser.

To deliver more dynamic web content, you should teach yourself JavaScript.

  • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool
  • JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page
  • JavaScript can react to events
  • JavaScript can change HTML elements
  • JavaScript can be used to validate data


ASP or PHP - Server-Side Scripting

Server-side scripting is about "programming" an Internet server.

To deliver more dynamic web content, you should teach yourself server-side scripting.

With server-side scripting, you can:

  • Dynamically edit, change, or add any content of a Web page
  • Respond to user queries and form data
  • Access databases and return the result to a browser
  • Access files and return the result to a browser
  • Transform XML data to HTML data and return the results to a browser
  • Customize a Web page to make it more useful for individual users
  • Provide security and access control to Web pages
  • Tailor your output to different types of browsers
  • Minimize network traffic


Managing Data with SQL

SQL is the standard language for accessing and manipulating databases.

SQL is used to access and manipulate data in MySQL, SQL Server, MS Access, Oracle, Sybase, DB2, and other database systems.

Knowledge of SQL is a must for anyone wanting to store or retrieve data from a database.


What Will the Future Bring?

One important thing to know is that the functionality of Web Sites will change very drastically. We will see a huge shift from sites displaying "static content" to data driven sites delivering "dynamic content".

We will also see new browsers, like the browsers found in mobile devices. We will also see more use of XML for transmitting data between servers, or between servers and browsers.

Web Building Site Design



Designing Web sites needs careful thinking and a lot of planning.

The most important thing is to KNOW YOUR AUDIENCE.


Users are Scanners

A typical visitor will NOT read the entire content of your Web page!

No matter how much useful information you put into a Web page, a visitor will only spend a few seconds scanning it before they decide whether to leave or to stay.

Be sure to make your point in the very first sentence of the page! After that, try to keep the user occupied with short paragraphs, and new headers down the page.


Less is More

Keep the paragraphs as short as possible.

Keep the pages as short as possible.

Keep the chapters as short as possible.

Use a lot of space! Pages overloaded with text will kill your audience.

If you have a lot to say, break your information into smaller chunks and place it on different pages!



Create a consistent navigation structure that is used by all the pages in your Web site.

Don't use hyperlinks inside paragraphs, to send visitors to every page of your Web. This will destroy the feeling of a consistent navigation structure.

If you must use hyperlinks, add them to the bottom of a paragraph, or to the menu.


Download Speed

Sometimes developers are not aware of the fact that some pages take a long time to download.

Most visitors will leave a Web page that takes more than 7 seconds to download.

Test your web pages over a low-speed modem connection. If your pages take a long time to download, consider removing graphic or multimedia content.


Let your Audience Speak!

Feedback is a very good thing!

Your visitors are your "customers". Often they will give you some valuable hints about what you could have done better.

Provide a simple way to reach you, and you will get a lot of input from people with different skills and knowledge.

Web Building Site User

Your visitors use different hardware and software.

The important thing is to KNOW YOUR AUDIENCE.


Visitor's Monitor

Not everyone on the internet has the same monitor as you.

If you design a Web site to be displayed on a monitor with a 1024x768 resolution, visitors with lower resolution monitors (like 800x600) might have problems reading your pages.

Make sure you test your Web site on different monitors.

Take a look at our browser display statistics to see the trends in monitor development.


What Browsers Do They Use?

Don't forget to test your Web site on different browsers.

The most popular browsers today are Internet Explorer and Firefox.

One wise thing to do when designing Web pages is to use correct HTML (or XHTML). Strict and correct coding will help a browser to display your pages correctly.

 Take a look at our browser statistics to see the trends in browser development.


What Plug-Ins Do They Have?

Sound, video clips, or other multimedia content might require the use of separate programs (plug-ins).

Be sure that your visitors have access to the software needed to view them.


What About Disabilities?

Some people have viewing or hearing disabilities.

They might try to read your pages with Braille or speech-based browsers. Always add text alternatives for pictures and graphic elements.

Web Standards

Web standards make Web development easier.


Why Web Standards?

To make internet a better place, for both developers and end-users, it is important that both browsers and Web developers follow the Web standards.

When developers follow the Web standards, the development is simplified, since it is easier for a developer to understand another's coding.

Using Web standards will help you to ensure that all browsers, will display your Web site properly, without frequent and time-consuming rewrites.

Web pages that conforms to the standard are easier for search engines to access and index, easier to convert to other formats, and easier to access with program code (like JavaScript and the DOM).

Make a habit of validating your pages with a validation service. Validation keeps your documents up to the standards, and free for errors.



Accessibility is an important part of the HTML standard.

Web standards make it easier for people with disabilities to use the Web.

Blind people can use computers that read Web pages for them. People with poor sight can rearrange and magnify standard Web pages. Simple Web standards like HTML 4 and CSS, will make your Web pages much easier to understand by special devices.


W3C - The World Wide Web Consortium

W3C creates the Web standards.

W3C, founded in 1994, is an international consortium dedicated to "lead the Web to its full potential". 

As developers, especially when creating educational Web sites, we can help them turn this dream into reality.

More about W3C


ECMA - European Computer Manufacturers Association

ECMA, founded in 1961, in order to meet the need for standardizing computer languages and input/output codes.

ECMA is not an official standardization institute, but an association of companies that collaborate with other official institutes like the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI).

For Web developers, the most important standard is ECMAScript, the standardization of JavaScript.

With JavaScript, DOM objects can then be added, deleted, or changed.

The latest ECMAScript specification is ECMA-262:

Web Building W3C

The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) creates the WWW standards.

W3C's mission is to lead the Web to its full potential, which it does by developing specifications, guidelines, software, and tools.


W3C - The World Wide Web Consortium

From Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the World Wide Web, director and founder of the World Wide Web consortium:

"The dream behind the Web is of a common information space in which we communicate by sharing information."

The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), founded in 1994, is an international consortium dedicated to "lead the Web to its full potential". 

  • W3C Stands for the World Wide Web Consortium
  • W3C was created in October 1994
  • W3C was created by Tim Berners-Lee
  • W3C was created by the Inventor of the Web
  • W3C is organized as a Member Organization
  • W3C is working to Standardize the Web
  • W3C creates and maintains WWW Standards
  • W3C Standards are called W3C Recommendations

As developers, especially when creating educational Web sites, we can help turn this dream into reality. The most important W3C standards are:

Web Building Security

You are offering your IP address to the entire world at this very moment.

Make sure you are not offering access to your private data at the same time.



Accessing the Internet is a security risk.

When you are connected to the Internet, an IP address is used to identify your computer.  If you don't protect yourself, this IP address can be used to access your computer from the outside world.

A fixed IP address is a larger security risk.

If you're using a modem with a dial-up connection, you will get a new IP address every time you connect to Internet.

With an ADSL or cable connection users sometimes keep the same IP address for several months, this represents an increased security risk.

If you have a fixed IP address, you give Internet hackers all the time they need to search for entrances on your computer, and to store and share (with other hackers) information they find on your computer.


Your Network Shares

Personal computers are often connected to a shared network. Personal computers in large companies are connected to large corporate networks. Personal computers in small companies are connected to a small local network, and computers in private homes often share a network between family members.

Most often networks are used to share resources like printers, files and disk storage.

When you are connected to the Internet, your shared resources can be accessed by the rest of the world.


A Common Windows Security Problem

Unfortunately, many Microsoft Windows users are unaware of a common security leak in their network settings.

This is a common setup for network computers in Microsoft Windows: 

  • Client for Microsoft Networks
  • File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks
  • NetBEUI Protocol
  • Internet Protocol TCP/IP

If your setup allows NetBIOS over TCP/IP, you have a security problem:

  • Your files can be shared all over the Internet
  • Your logon-name, computer-name, and workgroup-name are visible to others

If your setup allows File and Printer Sharing over TCP/IP, you also have a problem:

  • Your files can be shared all over the Internet

Computers that are not connected to any network can also have unsecure network settings, because the settings were changed when Internet was installed.


Solving the Problem

For Windows 2000 users:

You can solve your security problem by disabling NetBIOS over TCP/IP:

  • Open Windows Explorer
  • Right-click on My Network Places
  • Select: Properties
  • Right-click on Local Area Network
  • Select: Properties
  • Select: Internet Protocol TCP/IP
  • Click on Properties
  • Click on Advanced
  • Select the WINS tab
  • Select Disable NetBIOS over TCP/IP
  • Click OK

If you get the message: "This connection has an empty......", ignore the message and click on YES to continue, and click OK to close the other setup windows.

You should restart your computer after the changes.

For Windows 95, 98, or ME users:

You can solve your security problem by disabling NetBIOS over TCP/IP:

  • Open Windows Explorer
  • Right-click on My Network Places
  • Select: Properties
  • Select: Internet Protocol TCP/IP
  • Click on Properties
  • Select the NetBIOS tab
  • Uncheck: Enable NetBIOS over TCP/IP
  • Click OK

You must also disable the TCP/IP Bindings to Client for Microsoft Networks and File and Printer Sharing:

  • Open Windows Explorer
  • Right-click on My Network Places
  • Select: Properties
  • Select: Internet Protocol TCP/IP
  • Click on Properties
  • Select the Bindings tab
  • Uncheck: Client for Microsoft Networks
  • Uncheck: File and Printer Sharing
  • Click OK

If you get a  message with something like: "You must select a driver.........", ignore the message and click on YES to continue, and click OK to close the other setup windows.

If you still want to share your Files and Printer over the network, you must use the NetBEUI protocol instead of the TCP/IP protocol. Make sure you have enabled it for your local network:

  • Open Windows Explorer
  • Right-click on My Network Places
  • Select: Properties
  • Select: NetBEUI
  • Click on Properties
  • Select the Bindings tab
  • Check: Client for Microsoft Networks
  • Check: File and Printer Sharing
  • Click OK

You should restart your computer after the changes.


Protect Your Server

iisPROTECT provides a complete range of password protection, authentication and user management solutions:

iisPROTECTasp: Protect areas of your web site and require username and password. Grant/deny any users/groups on a per resource basis. Extensive Web Interface for user/group admin, use any DB backend, store custom data, set user start/end dates, email users, audit logins.

iisPROTECT: Protect all web site files including images, databases,html,ASP etc. Protect entire directories, users / groups independent from Windows accounts, complete web administration, does not require cookies or any programming. Complete turn key solution.

iisPROTECTquota: All of the features of iisPROTECT plus: prevent concurrent logins and password cracking attempts, set quotas on hits, logins, kb per user.

Web Glossary


This is an alphabetical list of Web Building Glossary Terms.


Access (Microsoft Access)
A database system developed by Microsoft. Part of Microsoft Office Professional. Mostly used on low traffic web sites running on the Windows platform.

A web technology for streaming movies from a web server to a web client. Developed by Microsoft.

A programming interface (API) that allows web browsers to download and execute Windows programs. (See also Plug-In)

See Web Address.

In web terms: The starting point or ending point of a hyperlink.

Learn more about links in our HTML tutorial

Anonymous FTP

See FTP Server.

ANSI (American National Standards Institute)
An organization that creates standards for the computer industry. Responsible for the ANSI C standard.

An international standard for the C programming language.

ADO (ActiveX Data Object)
A Microsoft technology that provides data access to any kind of data store.
Learn more about ADO in our ADO tutorial

ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line)
A special type of DSL line where the upload speed is different from the download speed.

An open source web browser editor from W3C, used to push leading-edge ideas in browser design.

A set of pictures simulating movement when played in series.

Anti-Virus Program
A computer program made to discover and destroy all types of computer viruses.

An open source web server. Mostly for Unix, Linux and Solaris platforms.

See web applet.

A computer program to locate files on public FTP servers.

API (Application Programming Interface)
An interface for letting a program communicate with another program. In web terms: An interface for letting web browsers or web servers communicate with other programs. (See also Active-X and Plug-In)

The experimental network tested in the 1970's which started the development of the Internet.

In web terms: the method used to verify the identity of a user, program or computer on the web.

ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
A set of 128 alphanumeric and special control characters used for computer storing and printing of text. Used by HTML when transmitting data over the web.
See the full list of ASCII codes in our HTML Reference

ASF (Advanced Streaming Format)
A multimedia streaming format. Developed by Microsoft for Windows Media.

ASP (Active Server Pages)
A Microsoft technology allowing the insertion of server executable scripts in web pages.
Learn more about ASP in our ASP tutorial

ASX (ASF Streaming Redirector)
An XML format for storing information about ASF files. Developed by Microsoft for Windows Media.

AVI (Audio Video Interleave)
File format for video files. Video compression technology developed by Microsoft.

Banner Ad
A (most often graphic) advertisement placed on a web page, which acts as a hyperlink to an advertiser's web site.

A measure for the speed (amount of data) you can send through an Internet connection. The more bandwidth, the faster the connection.

The number of symbols per second sent over a channel.

BBS (Bulletin Board System)
A web based public system for sharing discussions, files, and announcements.

Binary Data
Data in machine readable form.

Bit (Binary Digit)
The smallest unit of data stored in a computer. A bit can have the value of 0 or 1. A computer uses 8 bits to store one text character.

BMP (Bitmap)
A format for storing images.

In web terms: A link to a particular web site, stored (bookmarked) by a web user for future use and easy access.

Term to describe a user's movement across the web, moving from page to page via hyperlinks, using a web browser. (See Web Browser).

BPS (Bits Per Second)
Term to describe the transmission speed for data over the web

See Web Browser.

Byte (Binary Term)
A computer storage unit containing 8 bits. Each byte can store one text character.

An advanced programming language used for programming advanced computer applications.

C++ (C Plus Plus)
The same as C with added object-oriented functions.

C# (C Sharp)
A Microsoft version of C++ with added Java-like functions.

Case Sensitive
A term used to describe if it is of importance to use upper or lower case letters.

In web terms: A web browser or web server feature which stores copies of web pages on a computer's hard disk.

An on-line text-based communication between Internet users.

CGI (Common Gateway Interface)
A set of rules that describes how a CGI program communicates with a web server.

The folder (or directory) on a web server that stores CGI programs.

CGI Program
A small program that handles input and output from a web server. Often CGI programs are used for handling forms input or database queries

A codec for computer video.

See Web Client.

In web terms: The communication and separation of workload between a web client and a web server.

In web terms: A mouse click on a hyperlink element (such as text or picture) on a web page which creates an event such as taking a visitor to another web page or another part of the same page.

Clickthrough Rate
The number of times visitors click on a hyperlink (or advertisement) on a page, as a percentage of the number of times the page has been displayed.

Codec (Compressor / Decompressor)
Common term for the technology used for compressing and decompressing data.

Communication Protocol
A standard (language and a set of rules) to allow computers to interact in a standard way. Examples are IP, FTP, and HTTP.
Learn more about Communication Protocols in our TCP/IP tutorial

A method of reducing the size (compress) of web documents or graphics for faster delivery via the web.

Computer Virus
A computer program that can harm a computer by displaying messages, deleting files, or even destroying the computer's operating system.

Information from a web server, stored on your computer by your web browser. The purpose of a cookie is to provide information about your visit to the website for use by the server during a later visit.

Web development software for most platforms (Linux, Unix, Solaris and Windows).

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
A W3C recommended language for defining style (such as font, size, color, spacing, etc.) for web documents.

Learn more about CSS in our CSS tutorial

Data stored in a computer in such a way that a computer program can easily retrieve and manipulate the data.
Learn more about databases in our SQL tutorial

Database System
A computer program (like MS Access, Oracle, and MySQL) for manipulating data in a database.

A database system from IBM. Mostly for Unix and Solaris platforms.

DBA (Data Base Administrator)
The person (or the software) who administers a database. Typical task are: backup, maintenance and implementation.

DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
An Internet standard protocol that assigns new IP addresses to users as need.

DHTML (Dynamic HTML)
A term commonly to describe HTML content that can change dynamically.
Learn more about DHTML in our DHTML tutorial

Dial-up Connection
In web terms: A connection to Internet via telephone and modem.

Discussion Group
See Newsgroup.

DNS (Domain Name Service)
A computer program running on a web server, translating domain names into IP addresses. Learn more about DNS in our Web Hosting tutorial

DNS Server
A web server running DNS.

DOM (Document Object Model)
A programming model for web page objects
. (See HTML DOM and XML DOM)

Domain Name
The name that identifies a web site. (like:
Learn more about domains in our Web Hosting tutorial

DOS (Disk Operating System)
A general disk based computer operating system (see OS). Originally developed by Microsoft for IBM personal computers. Often used as a shorthand for MS-DOS.

To transfer a file from a remote computer to a local computer. In web terms: to transfer a file from a web server to a web client. (see also Upload).

DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)
An Internet connection over regular telephone lines, but much faster. Speed may vary from 128 kilobit per second, up to 9 megabit per second.

DTD (Document Type Definition)
A set of rules (a language) for defining the legal building blocks of a web document like HTML or XML.
Learn more about DTD in our DTD tutorial

Dynamic IP
An IP address that changes each time you connect to the Internet. (See DHCP and Static IP).

E-mail (Electronic Mail)
Messages sent from one person to another via the Internet.

E-mail Address
The address used for sending e-mails to a person or an organization. Typical format is username@hostname.

E-mail Server
A web server dedicated to the task of serving e-mail.

To convert data from its original form to a form that can only be read by someone that can reverse the encryption. The purpose of encryption is to prevent unauthorized reading of the data.

See Web Server Error.

A type of local area network (see LAN).

Software that acts as a security filter that can restrict types of network communication. Most often used between an individual computer (or a LAN) and the Internet.

A vector-based multimedia format developed by Macromedia for use on the web.
Learn more about Flash in our Flash tutorial

See HTML Form.

In web terms: The same as Newsgroup.

In web terms: A part of the browser screen displaying a particular content. Frames are often used to display content from different web pages.

Web development software for the Windows platform. Developed by Microsoft.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
One of the most common methods for sending files between two computers.

FTP Server
A web server you can logon to, and download files from (or upload files to). Anonymous FTP is a method for downloading files from an FTP server without using a logon account.

A computer program for transferring (and reformatting) data between incompatible applications or networks

GIF (Graphics Interchange Format)
A compressed format for storing images developed by CompuServe. One of the most common image formats on the Internet.

Same as Gigabyte. 10GB is ten gigabytes.

1024 megabytes. Commonly rounded down to one billion bytes.

In web terms graphics describe pictures (opposite to text).

Graphic Monitor
A display monitor that can display graphics.

Graphic Printer
A printer that can print graphics.

Graphical Banner
See Banner Ad.

Helper application
In web terms: A program helping the browser to display, view, or work with files that the browser cannot handle itself. (See Plug-In).

The number of times a web object (page or picture) has been viewed or downloaded. (See also Page Hits).

Home Page
The top-level (main) page of a web site. The default page displayed when you visit a web site.

See Web Host.

See Web Hosting.

See Hyperlink.

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)
HTML is the language of the web. HTML is a set of tags that are used to define the content, layout and the formatting of the web document. Web browsers use the HTML tags to define how to display the text.
Learn more about HTML in our HTML tutorial

HTML Document
A document written in HTML.

HTML DOM (HTML Document Object Model)
A programming interface for HTML documents.
Learn more about HTML DOM in our HTML DOM tutorial

HTML Editor
A software program for editing HTML pages. With an HTML editor you can add elements like lists, tables, layout, font size, and colors to a HTML document like using a word processor. An HTML editor will display the page being edited exactly the same way it will be displayed on the web (See WYSIWYG).

A form that passes user input back to the server.
Learn more about HTML forms in our HTML tutorial

The same as an HTML Document.

Code to identify the different parts of a document so that a web browser will know how to display it.
Learn more about HTML tags our HTML tutorial

HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol)
The standard set of rules for sending text files across the Internet. It requires an HTTP client program at one end, and an HTTP server program at the other end.

HTTP Client
A computer program that requests a service from a web server.

HTTP Server
A computer program providing services from a web server.

HTTPS (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure)
Same as HTTP but provides secure Internet communication using SSL. (see also SSL)

A pointer to another document. Most often a pointer to another web page. A hyperlink is a synonym for a hotlink or a link, and sometimes called a hypertext connection to another document or web page.

An extension to hypertext to include graphics and audio.

Hypertext is text that is cross-linked to other documents in such a way that the reader can read related documents by clicking on a highlighted word or symbol. (see also hyperlink)

IAB (Internet Architecture Board)
A council that makes decisions about Internet standards. (See also W3C).

IE (Internet Explorer)
See Internet Explorer.

IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)
A subgroup of IAB that focuses on solving technical problems on the Internet.

IIS (Internet Information Server)
A web server for Windows operating systems. Developed by Microsoft.

IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol)
A standard communication protocol for retrieving e-mails from an e-mail server. IMAP is much like POP but more advanced.
Learn more about IMAP in our TCP/IP tutorial

A codec for computer video developed by Intel.

A world wide network connecting millions of computers. (See also WWW)

Internet Browser
See Web Browser.

Internet Explorer
A browser by Microsoft. The most commonly used browser today.
Learn more about browsers in our browser section

Internet Server
See Web Server

A private (closed) Internet, running inside a LAN (Local Area Network).

IP (Internet Protocol)

IP Address (Internet Protocol Address)
A unique number identifying every computer on the Internet (like

IP Number (Internet Protocol Number)
Same as an IP address.

IP Packet
See TCP/IP Packet.

IRC (Internet Relay Chat)
An Internet system that enables users to take part in on-line discussions

IRC Client
A computer program that enables a user to connect to IRC.

IRC Server
An Internet server dedicated to the task of serving IRC connections.

ISAPI (Internet Server API)
Application Programming Interface (See API) for Internet Information Server (See IIS).

ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)
A telecommunication standard that uses digital transmission to support data communications over regular telephone lines.

ISP (Internet Service Provider)
Someone that provides access to the Internet and web hosting.

A programming language developed by SUN. Mostly for programming web servers and web applets. 

Java Applet
See Web Applet.

The most popular scripting language on the internet, developed by Netscape.
Learn more about JavaScript in our JavaScript tutorial.

JPEG (Joint Photographic Expert Group)
The organization that promotes the JPG and JPEG graphic formats for storing compressed images. 

Graphic formats for storing compressed images. 

Microsoft's version of JavaScript.

JSP (Java Server Pages)
A Java based technology allowing the insertion of server executable scripts in web pages. Mostly used on Linux, Unix and Solaris platforms. 

Same as kilobyte 10K is ten kilobytes..

Same as kilobyte 10KB is ten kilobytes..

In web terms: A word used by a search engine to search for relevant web information.
In database terms: A word (or index) used to identify a database record.

1024 bytes. Often called 1K, and rounded down to 1000 bytes.

LAN (Local Area Network)
A network between computers in a local area (like inside a building), usually connected via local cables. See also WAN.

The same as a hyperlink.

Open source computer operating system based on Unix. Mostly used on servers and web servers.

In web terms: the same as e-mail.

Mail Server
See e-mail server.

Same as Megabyte. 10MB is ten megabytes.

1024 kilobytes. Commonly rounded down to one million bytes.

Meta Data
Data that describes other data. (See also Meta Tags).

Meta Search
The method of searching for meta data in documents.

Meta Tags
Tags inserted into documents to describe the document.
Learn more about meta tags in our HTML tutorial

MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface)
A standard protocol for communication between computers and musical instruments.
Learn more about MIDI in our Media tutorial

MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)
An Internet standard for defining document types. MIME type examples: text/plain, text/html, image/gif, image/jpg.
Learn more about MIME types in our Media tutorial

MIME Types
Document types defined by MIME.

Hardware equipment to connect a computer to a telephone network Typically used to connect to the Internet via a telephone line.

The first commonly available web browser. Mosaic was released in 1993 and started the popularity of the web.

A codec for computer video developed by Apple. Common file extension for QuickTime multimedia files.

MP3 (MPEG-1 Audio Layer-3)
An audio compression format specially designed for easy download over the Internet.

MP3 File
An file containing audio compressed with MP3. Most often a music track.

MPEG (Moving Picture Expert Group)
An ISO standard codec for computer audio and video.

Common file extension for MPEG files.

MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System)
A general disk based computer operating system (See OS). Originally developed by Microsoft for IBM computers, then developed by Microsoft as a basis for the first versions of Windows.

In web terms: A presentation combining text with pictures, video, or sound.

Free open source database software often used on the web.

NetBEUI (Net Bios Extended User Interface)
An enhanced version of NetBIOS.

NetBIOS (Network Basic Input Output System)
An application programming interface (API) with functions for local-area networks (LAN). Used by DOS and Windows.

In web terms: The same as Browse.

The browser from the company Netscape. The most popular browser for many years. Today IE has the lead.
Learn more about browsers in our browser section

An on-line discussion group (a section on a news server) dedicated to a particular subject of interest.

News Reader
A computer program that enables you to read (and post messages) from an Internet newsgroup.

News Server
An Internet server dedicated to the task of serving Internet newsgroups.

In web terms: A computer connected to the Internet, most often used to describe a web server.

The browser from the company Opera.
Learn more about browsers in our browser section

OS (Operating System)
The software that manages the basic operating of a computer.

See TCP/IP Packet.

Page Hits
The number of times a web page has been visited by a user.

Page Impressions
The same as Page Hits.

Page Views
The same as Page Hits.

PDF (Portable Document Format)
A document file format developed by Adobe. Most often used for text documents.

Perl (Practical Extraction and Reporting Language)
A scripting language for web servers. Most often used on Unix servers.

PHP (PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor)
A technology allowing the insertion of server executable scripts in web pages. Mostly for Unix, Linux and Solaris platforms.
Learn more about PHP in our PHP tutorial.

A method used to check the communication between two computers. A "ping" is sent to a remote computer to see if it responds.

In web terms: The computer's operating system like Windows, Linux, or OS X.

An application built into another application. In web terms: A program built in (or added) to a web browser to handle a special type of data like e-mail, sound, or movie files. (See also ActiveX)

PNG (Portable Network Graphics)
A format for encoding a picture pixel by pixel and sending it over the web. A W3C recommendation for replacing GIF.

POP (Post Office Protocol)
A standard communication protocol for retrieving e-mails from an e-mail server. (See also IMAP).
Learn more about POP and IMAP in our TCP/IP tutorial

A number that identifies a computer IO (input/output) channel. In web terms: A number that identifies the I/O channel used by an Internet application (A web server normally uses port 80).

See Communication Protocol.

PPP (Point to Point Protocol)
A communication protocol used for direct connection between two computers.

Proxy Server
An Internet server dedicated to improve Internet performance.

A multimedia file format created by Apple.
Learn more about QuickTime in our Media tutorial

RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks)
A standard for connecting multiple disks to the same server for higher security, speed and performance. Often used on web servers.

RDF (Resource Description Framework)
A framework for constructing languages for describing web resources.
Learn more about RDF in our RDF tutorial

Real Audio
A common multimedia audio format created by Real Networks.
Learn more about Real Audio in our Media tutorial

Real Video
A common multimedia video format created by Real Networks.
Learn more about Real Video in our Media tutorial

In web terms: The action when a web page automatically forwards (redirects) the user to another web page.

RGB (Red Green Blue)
The combination of the three primary colors that can represent a full color spectrum.
Learn more about RGB in our HTML tutorial

See Web Robot.

A hardware (or software) system that directs (routes) data transfer to different computers in a network.

See XML Schema.

A collection of statements written in a Scripting Language.

Scripting Language
In web terms: A simple programming language that can be executed by a web browser or a web server. See JavaScript and VBScript.

Writing a script.

Search Engine
Computer program used to search and catalog (index) the millions of pages of available information on the web. Common search engines are Google and AltaVista.

Semantic Web
A web of data with a meaning in the sense that computer programs can know enough about the data to process it

See Web Server.

Server Errors
See Web Server Errors.

Software that you can try free of charge, and pay a fee to continue to use legally.

A format (technology) developed by Macromedia for embedding multimedia content in web pages.

SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language)
An international standard for markup languages. The basis for HTML and XML.

SMIL (Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language)
A W3C recommended language for creating multimedia presentations.
Learn more about SMIL in our SMIL tutorial

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
A standard communication protocol for sending e-mail messages between computers.
Learn more about SMTP in our TCP/IP tutorial

SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol)
A standard protocol for letting applications communicate with each other using XML.
Learn more about SOAP in our SOAP tutorial

Computer operating system from SUN.

In web terms: The action of sending multiple unwelcome messages to a newsgroup or mailing list.

See Web Spider.

Addressing a web page or an e-mail with a false referrer. Like sending an e-mail from a false address.

Computer software hidden in a computer with the purpose of collecting information about the use of the computer.

SQL (Structured Query Language)
An ANSI standard computer language for accessing and manipulating databases.
Learn more about SQL in our SQL tutorial.

SQL Server
A database system from Microsoft. Mostly used on high traffic web sites running on the Windows platform.

SSI (Server Side Include)
A type of HTML comment inserted into a web page to instruct the web server to generate dynamic content. The most common use is to include standard header or footer for the page.

SSL (Secure Socket Layer)
Software to secure and protect web site communication using encrypted transmission of data.

Static IP (address)
An IP address that is the same each time connect to the Internet. (See also Dynamic IP).

A method of sending audio and video files over the Internet in such a way that the user can view the file while it is being transferred.

Streaming Format
The format used for files being streamed over the Internet. (See Windows Media, Real Video and QuickTime).

SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics)
A W3C recommended language for defining graphics in XML.
Learn more about SVG in our SVG tutorial

In web terms: Notifications or commands written into a web document. (See HTML Tags)

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol)
A collection of Internet communication protocols between two computers. The TCP protocol is responsible for an error free connection between two computers, while the IP protocol is

responsible for the data packets sent over the network.
Learn more about TCP/IP in our TCP/IP tutorial

TCP/IP Address
See IP Address.

TCP/IP Packet
A "packet" of data sent over a TCP/IP network. (data sent over the Internet is broken down into small "packets" from 40 to 32000 bytes long).

Trojan Horse
Computer program hidden in another computer program with the purpose of  destroying software or collecting information about the use of the computer.

UDDI (Universal Description Discovery and Integration)
A platform-independent framework for describing services, discovering businesses, and integrating business services using the Internet.
Learn more about UDDI in our WSDL tutorial

Computer operating system, developed by Bell Laboratories. Mostly used for servers and web servers.

To uncompress a ZIPPED file. See ZIP.

To transfer a file from a local computer to a remote computer. In web terms: to transfer a file from a web client to a web server. (see also Download).

URI (Uniform Resource Identifier)
Term used to identify resources on the internet. URL is one type of an URI.

URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
A web address. The standard way to address web documents (pages) on the Internet (like:

A world wide news system accessible over the Internet. (See Newsgroups)

User Agent
The same as a Web Browser.

VB (Visual Basic)
See Visual Basic.

A scripting language from Microsoft. VBScript is the default scripting language in ASP. Can also be used to program Internet Explorer.
Learn more about VBScript in our VBScript tutorial.

Same as Computer Virus.

In web terms: A visit to a web site. Commonly used to describe the activity for one visitor of a web site.

In web terms: A visitor of a web site. Commonly used to describe a person visiting (viewing) a web site.

Visual Basic
A programming language from Microsoft.

VPN (Virtual Private Network)
A private network between two remote sites, over a secure encrypted virtual Internet connection (a tunnel).

VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language)
A programming language to allow 3D effects to be added to HTML documents.

W3C (World Wide Web Consortium)
The organization responsible for managing standards for the WWW.
Learn more about W3C in our W3C tutorial

WAN (Wide Area Network)
Computers connected together in a wide network, larger than a LAN, usually connected via phone lines. See also LAN.

WAP (Wireless Application Protocol)
A leading standard for information services on wireless terminals like digital mobile phones.
Learn more about WAP in our WAP tutorial

Web Address
The same as an URL or URI. See URL.

Web Applet
A program that can be downloaded over the web and run on the user's computer. Most often written in Java.

Web Client
A software program used to access web pages. Sometimes the same as a Web Browser, but often used as a broader term.

Web Browser
A software program used to display web pages.
Learn more about browsers in our Browser section

Web Document
A document formatted for distribution over the web. Most often a web document is formatted in a markup language like HTML or XML.

Web Error
See Web Server Error.

Web Form
See HTML Form.

Web Host
A web server that "hosts" web services like providing web site space to companies or individuals.

Web Hosting
The action of providing web host services.

Web Page
A document (normally an HTML file) designed to be distributed over the Web.

Web Robot
See Web Spider.

Web Server
A server is a computer that delivers services or information to other computers. In web terms:
A server that delivers web content to web browsers.

Web Server Error
A message from a web server indicating an error. The most common web server error is "404 File Not Found".
Learn more about web server error messages in our HTML tutorial

Web Services
Software components and applications running on web servers. The server provides these services to other computers, browsers or individuals, using standard communication protocols.

Web Site
A collection of related web pages belonging to a company or an individual.

Web Spider
A computer program that searches the Internet for web pages. Common web spiders are the one used by search engines like Google and AltaVista to index the web. Web spiders are also called web robots or wanderers.

Web Wanderer
See Web Spider.

A character used to substitute any character(s). Most often used as an asterix (*) in search tools.

Windows 2000, Windows NT, Windows 95/98, Windows XP
Computer operating systems from Microsoft.

Windows Media
Audio and video formats for the Internet, developed by Microsoft. (See ASF, ASX, WMA and WMF).
Learn more about Windows Media in our Media tutorial

A computer program for compressing and decompressing files. See ZIP.

Audio file format for the Internet, developed by Microsoft. (See also WMV).
Learn more about media formats in our Media tutorial.

Video file format for the Internet, developed by Microsoft. (See also WMA).
Learn more about media formats in our Media tutorial

WML (Wireless Markup Language)
A standard for information services on wireless terminals like digital mobile phones, inherited from HTML, but based on XML, and much stricter than HTML.
Learn more about WML in our WAP tutorial

WML Script
Scripting language (programming language) for WML.
Learn more about WMLScript  in our WMLScript tutorial

A computer virus that can make copies of itself and spread to other computers over the Internet.

WSDL (Web Services Description Language)
An XML-based language for describing Web services and how to access them.
Learn more about WSDL in our WSDL tutorial

WWW (World Wide Web)
A global network of computers using the internet to exchange web documents. (See also Internet)

WWW Server
The same as a Web Server.

WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get)
In Web terms: To display a web page being edited exactly the same way it will be displayed on the web.

A future version of HTML Forms, based on XML and XHTML. Differs from HTML forms by separating data definition and data display. Providing richer and more device independent user input.
Learn more about XForms in our XForms tutorial

XHTML (Extensible Hypertext Markup Language)
HTML reformulated as XML. XHTML is the latest version of HTML. Developed by W3C.
Learn more about XHTML in our XHTML tutorial

XPath is a set of syntax rules (language) for defining parts of an XML document. XPath is a major part of the W3C XSL standard.
Learn more about XPath in our XPath tutorial

XQuery is a set of syntax rules (language) for extracting information from XML documents. XQuery builds on XPath. XQuery is developed by W3C.
Learn more about XQuery in our XQuery tutorial

XML (Extensible Markup Language)
A simplified version of SGML especially designed for web documents, developed by the W3C.
Learn more about XML in our XML tutorial

XML Document
A document written in XML.

XML DOM (XML Document Object Model)
A programming interface for XML documents developed by W3C.
Learn more about XML DOM in our XML DOM tutorial

XML Schema
A document that describes, in a formal way, the syntax elements and parameters of a web language. Designed by W3C to replace DTD.
Learn more about Schema in our XML Schema tutorial

XSD (XML Schema Definition)
The same as XML Schema.

XSL (Extensible Stylesheet Language)
A suite of XML languages developed by W3C, including XSLT, XSL-FO and XPath.
Learn more about XSL in our XSL tutorial

XSL-FO (XSL Formatting Objects)
An XML language for formatting XML documents. A part of XSL developed by W3C.
Learn more about XSL-FO in our XSL-FO tutorial

XSLT (XSL Transformations)
An XML language for transforming XML documents. A part of XSL developed by W3C.
Learn more about XSLT in our XSLT tutorial

A compressing format for computer files. Commonly used for compressing files before downloading over the Internet. ZIP files can be compressed (ZIPPED) and decompressed (UNZIPPED) using a computer program like WINZIP.

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